De Novo Precursor B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma With Double-Hit Gene Rearrangements (MYC/BCL-2) Presented With Spinal Cord Compression and Acquired Factor XIII Deficiency

Dina Sameh Soliman, Ahmad Al-Sabbagh, Feryal Ibrahim, Shehab Fareed, Mohamed Talaat, Mohamed A. Yassin

Abstract


Double-hit lymphomas (DHLs) are aggressive mature B-cell neoplasms associated with rearrangements involving MYC and B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2). Such DH events are extremely rare in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), especially in young adults. A 29-year-old male patient initially presented to emergency department with right mandibular mass of 2 months duration associated with intermittent fever. Laboratory workup revealed very high lactate dehydrogenase at 2,026.0 U/L. Peripheral blood revealed pancytopenia with many circulating blasts (about 77%). Bone marrow (BM) aspirate revealed infiltration with many small sized blasts of very high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, finely dispersed nuclear chromatin and prominent nucleoli. The BM biopsy reflected marked hypercellularity with diffuse replacement by sheets of blasts, positive for TdT, PAX-5, CD10, cMYC, BCL-2 and CD20 with Ki-67 > 90%. Flow cytometry on BM revealed a precursor B-immunophenotype (CD45 (dim), CD19, CD10, Tdt and CD20). The blasts are negative for cytoplasmic and surface IgM. Cytogenetics revealed complex karyotype: 46,XY,del(6)(q21q23),t(8;22)(q24.1;q11.2),t(14;18)(q32;q21)(20). A diagnosis of B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma with t(8;22)(q24.1;q11.2) and t(14;18)(q32;q21) was made. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed an abnormal hybridization signal pattern for CDKN2A probe, indicating biallelic (homozygous) deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 (9p) in 94% of the cells analyzed. The patient had severe life-threatening bleeding despite of normal prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) due to acquired factor XIII deficiency, an overlooked rare coagulopathy disorder. In addition, the patient developed acute sudden onset paraplegia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine showed acute cord compression which necessitated emergency radiotherapy after which chemotherapy was started on hyper-CVAD (hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, and dexamethasone) protocol. MRI showed dramatic resolution of the mass. Very few cases of B-ALL with DH rearrangement with true precursor B-cell phenotype (positivity for TdT with negativity for surface light chain) have been reported. Many of these had frequent central nervous system (CNS) involvement, with complex karyotypes, highly aggressive course, with short survival of less than 1 year. This case however showed very good response to treatment. In contrary to DHL, de novo B-ALL with double-hit rearrangements is more prevalent in pediatrics and young adults. Although most of reported cases represent transformation of follicular lymphoma, our patient’s young age, acute onset and absent lymphadenopathies all support de novo ALL.




J Hematol. 2017;6(2-3):62-67
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jh329w


Keywords


Double hit B-ALL; MYC; BCL-2; Acquired FXIII deficiency

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