Monthly Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator Versus Weekly Epoetin-Beta, Similar Hemoglobinization but Different Anisocytosis Degree in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Miguel G. Uriol-Rivera, Aina Obrador-Mulet, Sonia Jimenez-Mendoza, Antonio Corral-Baez, Leonor Perianez-Parraga, Angel Garcia-Alvarez, Francisco J. de la Prada

Abstract


Background: The monthly continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) utilization maintains stable hemoglobin (Hb) after conversion from weekly epoetin-beta (EB); however, how the different pharmacologic properties affect the red blood cell (RBC) size determined by RBC distribution width (RDW) has not been evaluated yet. We assess the potential differences in iron metabolism, plasma erythropoietin (EPO), hepcidin, and soluble alpha-Klotho (alpha-Klotho) levels as an emergent hematopoiesis factor.

Methods: Thirty-seven chronic hemodialysis patients were included from January 2010 to November 2011 and randomized (1:1) to continue with EB or to convert to monthly CERA. Primary outcome was the mean change in Hb between groups at months 0, 3 and 6, and the percentage of patients who maintained stable Hb (Hb ± 1 g/dL from baseline level to month 6). Secondary outcomes were the influence on the erythropoietic process and iron metabolism markers. Thirty-one patients completed the study (CERA: n = 15, EB: n = 16).

Results: The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) Hb difference between groups was 0.28 g/dL (-0.36 to 0.93). There was no difference between the percentages of patients with stable Hb levels. In the CERA group RDW values increased progressively (interaction erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) type and time on RDW values, F (1.57, 45.60) = 17.17, P < 0.01, partial ?2 = 0.37) and the mean corpuscular volume changed at the different time points, (F (2, 28) = 29.12, P = 0.03, partial ?2 = 0.23). During the evaluation period, in the CERA group, EPO was higher, and hepcidin and ferritin decreased significantly. alpha-Klotho decreased in both groups and correlated negatively with the changes on the RDW and positively with transferrin and serum iron. The number of serious adverse events was higher at the CERA group.

Conclusions: Monthly CERA maintained Hb concentrations; however, it showed a significant effect on RDW, probably due to its impact on the EPO and hepcidin levels. alpha-Klotho decreased significantly in both groups, and its changes correlated with the changes in iron metabolism. Whether the RDW evolution was associated with the serious adverse events (SAEs) is a feasible hypothesis that needs to be confirmed in large studies.




J Hematol. 2021;10(6):255-265
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jh862

Keywords


ESA half-life; Hemoglobin; Anisocytosis; Hepcidin; Erythropoietin; Klotho

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Journal of Hematology, bimonthly, ISSN 1927-1212 (print), 1927-1220 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                            
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